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This study suggests that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, which are a good source of antioxidants, may reduce the risk of having a heart attack among middle-aged and elderly women. This study has several strengths. It was a large study in more than 30, women, and it collected data at the beginning of the study and then followed-up over a fairly long period of time. This allows us to be more confident that the results reflect real relationships, and the large number of women included from the general population improves our ability to generalise the results to women who did not participate in the study.

There are some limitations to the study that should be considered, however. The most important is that researchers collected dietary data at one point in time only. There is no way to be sure that the dietary habits of the women did not change over the year follow-up period. If the habits did change, this could introduce bias into the study. Additionally, the study relied on self-report to measure diet, which could also introduce bias if the women did not accurately report their dietary habits.

So, while the evidence provided by the study is compelling, it is not possible to infer a direct cause and effect relationship between diet and risk of heart attack. This was assumed to give a better measure of the beneficial effects of an antioxidant-rich diet than simply measuring overall antioxidant consumption. Other foods that contributed were wholegrains and, to a lesser extent, coffee.

1. Introduction

Overall, this study, perhaps unsurprisingly, suggests that eating a lot of fruit, vegetables and wholegrains is good for your heart. Antioxidant-rich diet 'cuts heart attack risk'. Diet rich in antioxidants can cut heart attack risk Monday 24 September Where did the story come from? Leopold, M. Reference: Rajasekaran et al.

Over-the-counter antioxidant mix improved vascular health in some heart failure patients

DOI Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News. ScienceDaily, 10 August University of Utah Health Sciences Center. Too Many Vitamins? Retrieved October 7, from www. Researchers have developed drug-eluting stents Younger women with heart disease are more susceptible to reduced blood flow from mental stress The research addresses the burgeoning problem of heart disease in cancer Below are relevant articles that may interest you. ScienceDaily shares links with scholarly publications in the TrendMD network and earns revenue from third-party advertisers, where indicated.

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Cardiovascular disease - Wikipedia

One study 33 found that selenium levels are inversely associated with CHD mortality. One review 7 noted that conflicting results were reported in other studies. Flavonoids are antioxidants found in tea, wine, fruits and vegetables. These antioxidants reduce platelet activation, but studies do not yet support an associated reduction in CHD.

Bruce J. Haik, MD: Heart Failure

Ubiquinone, a reduced form of coenzyme Q 10 , decreases LDL oxidation, but no eventreduction data are available. The results of studies of garlic supplements have been conflicting regarding lipoprotein and platelet effects. The B-complex vitamins, especially folate, pyridoxine vitamin B 6 and cyanocobalamin vitamin B 12 , may reduce CHD risk through a lowering of homocysteine levels.

Clinical trials to reduce CHD events currently support vitamin E supplementation in dosages greater than IU per day. Vitamin C promotes vitamin E regeneration and significantly improves vasoreactivity, but clinical event reduction has not been established. Folate reduces serum homocysteine levels, but trials focusing on CHD events have not been completed.

Ubiquinone, flavonoids, garlic and other supplements have not been adequately tested for CHD event reduction, appropriate dosing, reliability or long-term safety. Because of the benefits from dietary antioxidants and other micronutrients, physicians should recommend consumption of a diet containing five to seven servings of fruits and vegetables per day Table 4. Patients should consume a varied diet that contains five to seven servings of fruits and vegetables each day.

AHA Recommendation

Patients should receive lifestyle counseling and continue cholesterol treatment when indicated. Patients with known CHD should probably take vitamin E in a dosage of IU per day and vitamin C in a dosage of to 1, mg per day. Obtaining homocysteine levels should be considered in all high-risk patients i. Patients at high risk for CHD and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol oxidation i. Physicians should watch for results of upcoming clinical trials on vitamin supplements. Based on current evidence, patients with CHD should probably take vitamin E in a dosage of IU per day; vitamin C supplementation in a dosage of to 1, mg per day should also be considered in these patients.

Patients receiving warfarin Coumadin therapy should limit vitamin E intake to IU per day and should avoid vitamin E if they are at high risk for bleeding. Cohort studies suggest that patients with conditions in which LDL oxidation is common i. Already a member or subscriber? Log in. She received her medical degree and a doctorate in nutritional sciences from the University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign.

Adams completed a residency in family medicine at the University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison. Wermuth recently completed a residency in family medicine at the University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison. Address correspondence to Patrick E. McBride, M. Reprints are not available from the authors. Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. N Engl J Med. A modern view of atherogenesis. Am J Cardiol. Jialal I, Grundy SM.

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